Manhattan: Simple. Smart.
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            Manhattan Virtual Classroom 3.3

The Manhattan Virtual Classroom system was written by Steven
Narmontas, who remains active as the lead developer. Steven can be
contacted at:

Western New England College:

Xiuli Gong of Western New England College is Western New England
College's Academic Programmer/Analyst who works with Steve Narmontas on
Manhattan. Her specific contributions to the project are "too numerous
to mention", but without her Manhattan 3.x would not have happened.


Manhattan has been in use at Western New England College in
Springfield, Massachusetts, US since February, 1997 - see The project was started as a spare-time obsession
of Steven Narmontas, who currently serves as the Director of the
Educational Technology Center.

Since 2001, the College has supported the continued development of this
open source project, initially via a generous grant from the Davis
Educational Foundation.

Western New England College faculty and students have tested each
version of Manhattan prior to its open source release.

Without the support and encouragement of Western New England College's
innovative faculty and students, there would be no Manhattan Virtual


Software used in Manhattan:

Manhattan's chat server, written in 'C', and the chat's java client are
Christian Walter's MELANGE system - see The
source for both client and server has been modified for use within
Manhattan, and the complete modified code has been included within the
src/melange/src directory of the Manhattan distribution.

An important part of the modifications done to Melange is that all of
the code was carefully reviewed to find potential buffer offerflow
exploits and corrected. The security advisories you'll find on the web
for Melange 1.10 do NOT apply to Manhattan's implementation.

Also, an extensive review of the server-side code was undertaken,
resulting in a much more stable chat server than the original and
more useful server logs.

Although Melange is no longer supported by its original author the
code lives on, and is actively maintained, within Manhattan.

Prior to the first GPL release of Manhattan, I wrote to Christian
asking him to clarify the licensing for Melange 1.10 (he explicitly has
released Melange 2.02 under the GPL). The following is his response.
Thank you, Christian.

--- start quote----

Subject: Re: Melange 1.10 license
Date: Tue, 26 Sep 2000 18:09:27 +0200
From: Christian Walter <>

Hi !

Feel free to use Melange 1.10 (and Melange 2.02) as if it is
covered by the General Public License (GPL). You can release
the Manhattan Chat under GPL, of course. Unfortunately I don't
have time to take a closer look at your chat, i even don't have
the time to finish my 2.02 release, its still beta for over a
year, sorry :-(.

anyway, nice greeting from vienna


max.mobil. Telekommunikation Service GmbH
Routing & Signalling
max.technik. NE Festnetz
A-1030 Wien, Kelsenstrasse 5-7

Christian Walter

--- end quote ---


Manhattan's distribution includes copies of Unzip 5.52 and Zip 2.3
both by "Info-Zip". The source and the licenses for these utilities is
found in the src/unzip-5.52 and src/zip-2.3 directories of the
Manhattan distribution.

Some of the source was modified slightly to get it to compile cleanly
under newer versions of the gcc compiler. See
for more information on these utilities.


All of the graphic buttons used within Manhattan 2 were done using a nifty
little program called Crystal Button (see
A few images came from, where I once was
a subscribed user. Some images were taken from the shared icons directory
found on my Linux system after installing RedHat 7.0. These icons are used
as part of the GNOME desktop.


Manhattan uses Brandon Long's ClearSilver HTML templating tool kit.
ClearSilver is Copyright (c) 2001 Brandon Long and Neotonic Software
Corporation. As such, "Manhattan includes software developed by the
Neotonic Software Corporation".

See for more information about ClearSilver.


XML parsing is done using James Clark's expat parser - see The source is included in the
src/expat directory.

Manhattan includes a number of JavaScript programs written by
Matt Kruse ( see

These programs include


found in the "images" directory of the Manhattan
distribution. The top of each file includes this text:

// Author: Matt Kruse <>
// WWW:
// NOTICE: You may use this code for any purpose, commercial or
// private, without any further permission from the author. You may
// remove this notice from your final code if you wish, however it is
// appreciated by the author if at least my web site address is kept.
// You may *NOT* re-distribute this code in any way except through its
// use. That means, you can include it in your product, or your web
// site, or any other form where the code is actually being used. You
// may not put the plain javascript up on your site for download or
// include it in your javascript libraries for download.
// If you wish to share this code with others, please just point them
// to the URL instead.
// Please DO NOT link directly to my .js files from your site. Copy
// the files to your server and use them there. Thank you.
// ===================================================================

Manhattan's People module makes use of Jeremy Madea's
jpgtn thumbnail maker. See
(The source is included in the src/jpgtn-2.06 directory of the

In turn, jpgtn requires libjpeg from the Independent JPEG Group
(see The source for libjpeg are included with
the Manhattan disribution in src/jpgtn-2.06/jpeg-6b

The spell checker used within Manhattan is James Shimada's
"Speller Pages" , which he hosts on SourceForge at:

His JavaScript code is included in the Manhattan distribution in the
src/speller directory

The bar graphs displayed in the Surveys module and within the Administrative
system's log file graphs are done via the JavaScript code included as
src/graph.js in the Manhattan distribution. We got the code (which we may
have modified slightly) from

which is a page from Markku Rossi's site at:

Markku used the "JavaScript Graph Builder" library authored by
Michael Bostock, who at the time at least was a Netscape Production
Engineer. The library's site is:

The source code found in src/manhat-lib/shared_fold_file.c
was taken from the 'fold' program that's part of the GNU
textutils package, and *slightly* modified to suit
Manhattan's needs. The original 'fold' program was written
David MacKenzie,

The original source code for the unaltered 'fold'
utility is available as part of the coreutils package

Manhattan's administrative interface uses Geir Landro's
dTree Javascript tree system found at:

Manhattan's administrative interface also uses the
doiMenu system found at:

The Flash MP3 sound player included with Manhattan is


We translated the original from French to English, and modified
the appearance slightly.

Manhattan also makes use of the "JW FLV MEDIA PLAYER" by
Jeroen Wijering.